2000.  The Ptolemies generally adhered to traditional architectural styles and motifs. "The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC)". By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus. Roman Egypt became one of Rome's richest provinces and a center of Hellenistic culture, with Greek remaining the main language of government until the Muslim conquest in 641 AD. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was diverse and cosmopolitan. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor. , The Statuette of Arsinoe II was created c. 150–100 BC, well after her death, as a part of her own specific posthumous cult which was started by her husband Ptolemy II. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, invaded Egypt, which at the time was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire known as the Thirty-first Dynasty under Emperor Artaxerxes III.  Arabs in the Ptolemaic kingdom had provided camel convoys to the armies of some Ptolemaic leaders during their invasions, but they had allegiance to none of the kingdoms of Egypt or Syria, and they managed to raid and attack both sides of the conflict between the Ptolemaic Kingdom and its enemies. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators. Together, they visited Dendara, where Cleopatra was being worshiped as pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach.  Mercenaries were paid a salary (misthos) of cash and grain rations; an infantryman in the third century earned about one silver drachma daily. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature.  Such behavior expanded the rulers' social and political capital and demonstrated their loyalty toward Egyptian deities, to the satisfaction of the local people.  Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy 's book Geography, written c. 150. These included issues of large coins in all three metals, most notably gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and silver tetradrachm, decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm. Framed in by the barren hills of the Nile Valley and the Egyptian sky, here a Greek city arose, with its public buildings and temples and theatre, no doubt exhibiting the regular architectural forms associated with Greek culture, with a citizen-body Greek in blood, and the institutions of a Greek city. Soldiers served in several units of the royal guard and were mobilized against uprisings and dynastic usurpers, both of which became increasingly common. Various diadochi competed for naval supremacy over the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean, and Ptolemy I founded the navy to help defend Egypt and consolidate his control against invading rivals. He married his sister Arsinoë, but was ruled by his mistress Agathoclea. If there is some doubt whether Alexandria possessed a council and assembly, there is none in regard to Ptolemais. Work continued for most of the Ptolemaic dynasty; the main temple was finished in the reign of his son, Ptolemy IV, in 212 BC, and the full complex was only completed in 142 BC, during the reign of Ptolemy VIII, while the reliefs on the great pylon were finished in the reign of Ptolemy XII. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronise scientific research.  Though present in the military from its founding, native troops were sometimes looked down upon and distrusted due to their reputation for disloyalty and tendency to aid local revolts; however, they were well regarded as fighters, and beginning with the reforms of Ptolemy V in the early third century, they appeared more frequently as officers and cavalrymen. The academies and libraries of Alexandria proved vital in preserving much Greek literary heritage. Fortunately, Ptolemy I had left Egypt strong and prosperous; three years of campaigning in the First Syrian War made the Ptolemies masters of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands (the Nesiotic League) and the coastal districts of Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. Native Egyptians maintained power over local and religious institutions, and only gradually accrued power in the bureaucracy, provided they Hellenized. Because the Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of marrying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. They lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities. Throughout, Ptolemy IV is presented as taking on the role of Horus who avenges his father by defeating the forces of disorder led by the god Set. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his son. Greek culture had a long but minor presence in Egypt long before Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. During this period, Greek troops under Ptolemy I Soter were given land grants and brought their families encouraging tens of thousands of Greeks to settle the country making themselves the new ruling class. He then may have devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander—which unfortunately was lost but was a principal source for the later work of Arrian. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone.  An example of realistic portrayal is the Berlin Green Head, which shows the non-idealistic facial features with vertical lines above the bridge of the nose, lines at the corners of the eyes and between the nose and the mouth. However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom. Ptolemy III initiated construction on it on 23 August 237 BC. A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy. Land Forces,” in. Most distinctively is the color of the faience. Ptolemy, a Macedonian Greek who was one of Alexander's most trusted generals and confidants, won control of Egypt from his rivals and declared himself pharaoh. Greeks held virtually all the political and economic power, while native Egyptians generally occupied only the lower posts; over time, Egyptians who spoke Greek were able to advance further and many individuals identified as "Greek" were of Egyptian descent. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control. , The early Ptolemies increased cultivatable land through irrigation and land reclamation. The Ptolemaic Egypt is a major power of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying territory in North Africa, Middle East and Cyprus. Original cloth, slightly spotted on edges. The city enjoyed a calm political history under the Ptolemies. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the influence of royal favourites, who controlled the government. Scenes were often framed with textual inscriptions, with a higher text to image ratio than seen previously during the New Kingdom. But within a century, Greek influence had spread through the country and intermarriage had produced a large Greco-Egyptian educated class. At its apex under Ptolemy II, the Ptolemaic navy may have had as many as 336 warships, with Ptolemy II reportedly having at his disposal more than 4,000 ships (including transports and allied vessels). xvi, 286pp. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Beginning with the Second Syrian War (260–253 BC), the navy suffered a series of defeats and declined in military importance, which coincided with the loss of Egypt's overseas possessions and the erosion of its maritime hegemony. Egypt had only three main Greek cities—Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ ˌ t ɒ l ɪ ˈ m eɪ.ɪ k /; Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, romanized: Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt.It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Within a few years he had gained control of Libya, Coele-Syria (including Judea), and Cyprus. Women are portrayed as more youthful, and men begin to be portrayed in a range from idealistic to realistic. The multiethnic nature of the Ptolemaic army was an official organizational principle: soldiers were evidently trained and utilized based on their national origin; Cretans generally served as archers, Libyans as heavy infantry, and Thracians as cavalry. Antiochus III the Great of The Seleucid Empire and Philip V of Macedon made a compact to seize the Ptolemaic possessions. Macedonians and other Greeks now formed the new upper classes, replacing the old native aristocracy. Their union produced three children; the twins Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos. Map of Ancient Egypt 2500 BCE Section 3: The Middle Kingdom The First Intermediate Period The last large pyramid of the Old Kingdom was erected for Pepy II, after a 96 year reign (c. 2246-2152 BCE). It began when Greek colonists, encouraged by many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of Naucratis. Ptolemy II bestowed his care upon Naucratis. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. Ptolemaic Egypt produced extensive series of coinage in gold, silver and bronze. Far up the Nile at Ombi a gymnasium of the local Greeks was found in 136–135 BC, which passed resolutions and corresponded with the king. , By the second and first centuries, increasing warfare and expansion, coupled with reduced Greek immigration, led to increasing reliance on native Egyptians; however, Greeks retained the higher ranks of royal guards, officers, and generals.  The worship of Isis and Horus became more popular, as did the practice of offering animal mummies. Ptolemy XIII and his advisors fled the palace, turning the Egyptian forces loyal to the throne against Caesar and Cleopatra, who barricaded themselves in the palace complex until Roman reinforcements could arrive to combat the rebellion, known afterward as the battles in Alexandria. He arrived in Alexandria and easily defeated Mark Antony's remaining forces outside the city. Robinson, Carlos. Egypt (Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae ˈɡʏptʊs]; Koinē Greek: Αἴγυπτος, romanized: Aígyptos, pronounced [ɛ ːɡyptos]) was established as a Roman province in 30 BC after Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire. The Ptolemies therefore limited the number of Greek city-states in Egypt to Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Naucratis.  Early portraits of the Ptolemies featured large and radiant eyes in association to the rulers’ divinity as well as general notions of abundance.. By the reign of Ptolemy III (246 to 222 BC), its role was more imperialistic, helping extend Ptolemaic control or influence over Cyrenaica, Coele-Syria, and Cyprus, as well as over cities in Anatolia, southern Thrace, the Aegean islands, and Crete. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. Not to be confused with Category:Ptolemy's 3rd African Map, covering maps of Egypt made upon the lines established by Claudius Ptolemy's Geography. Both daughters were killed in Auletes' reclaiming of his throne; Tryphaena by assassination and Berenice by execution, leaving Cleopatra VII as the oldest surviving child of Ptolemy Auletes. It is, therefore, purely Egyptian in style. , The military of Ptolemaic Egypt is considered to have been one of the best of the Hellenistic period, benefiting from the kingdom's vast resources and its ability to adapt to changing circumstances. Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt.  For the first hundred and fifty years of its existence, the library drew the top Greek scholars from all over the Hellenistic world.  The core of the army consisted of cavalry and infantry; as under Alexander, cavalry played a larger role both numerically and tactically, while the Macedonian phalanx served as the primary infantry formation.  They also introduced crops such as durum wheat and intensified the production of goods such as wool. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra II. A similar scholarly complex was the Museum (Mouseion, "hall of the Muses"). Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. If Alexandria perpetuated the name and cult of the great Alexander, Ptolemais was to perpetuate the name and cult of the founder of the Ptolemaic time. Philometor eventually regained the throne. We have still, inscribed on stone, decrees passed in the assembly of the people of Ptolemais, couched in the regular forms of Greek political tradition: It seemed good to the boule and to the demos: Hermas son of Doreon, of the deme Megisteus, was the proposer: Whereas the prytaneis who were colleagues with Dionysius the son of Musaeus in the 8th year, etc. Over time, the Greeks in Egypt became somewhat homogenized and the cultural distinctions between immigrants from different regions of Greece became blurred.. Yet if they had no place of political assembly, they often had their own gymnasium, the essential sign of Hellenism, serving something of the purpose of a university for the young men.  Egyptian soldiers also enjoyed a socioeconomic status higher than the average native. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía)  was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. Throughout the 160s and 150s BC, Ptolemy VI has also reasserted Ptolemaic control over the northern part of Nubia. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.  Art found outside of Egypt itself, though within the Ptolemaic Kingdom, sometimes used Egyptian iconography as it had been used previously, and sometimes adapted it..  The Ptolemaic navy also protected the kingdom's lucrative maritime trade and engaged in antipiracy measures, including along the Nile. 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